Large offer for an open minded bbw at 9 very simple

Added: Kao Propp - Date: 22.12.2021 01:51 - Views: 14465 - Clicks: 2292

Across the world, governments are acting on the belief that systematically making data more accessible can provide an important new asset to usher in positive social and economic transformation.

sweet lady Aleah

This trend is not limited to countries with more developed economies. Although the bulk of data in terms of quantity has thus far been released in developed countries, a growing of developing economies — in Asia, in Africa, in Latin America — have also been adopting open data plans and policies, and publishing government datasets that ly remained locked away in closed databases. The goal of this paper is to map and assess the current universe of theory and practice related to open data for developing economies, and to suggest a theory of change that can be used for both further practice and analysis.

We reviewed the existing literature, consulted with the open data community and sought to collect evidence through a series of 12 in-depth case studies spanning multiple sectors and regions of the world. In particular, we sought to answer the following three questions:. Although there has been much focus on the potential of data to usher in change, what makes open data different is often not as well recognized, with supporting analysis often speculative or anecdotal. Understanding the distinguishing features of open data is important to subsequently document how open data works — its mechanisms and pathways — and in doing so, to build a more solid evidence foundation for open data in development.

Based on our review of the existing narratives and theories in the literature, we identified six unique features that are believed to make open data specifically relevant — or potentially powerful — in the context of developing countries.

sexual floozy June

They reflect some of the features that are often also associated with the value of open source or open innovation in a developing context; and explain why open data is closely connected with the twin trends of open government and open development. By facilitating citizen participation and mobilization, open data can allow a wider range of expertise and knowledge to address and potentially solve complex problems. Because open data is subject to greater scrutiny and exposure than inaccessible institutional data, there is potential for enhanced review and improvement in the quality of government data by actors outside government.

Because open data increases transparency and avenues for citizen oversight, unlocking data can lead to higher levels of trust throughout societies and countries. Finally, opening government datasets in a flexible and equal manner can amplify the value of data by filling — and identifying — important data gaps in society.

Open data can lead to more equitable and democratic distribution of information and knowledge — though, several observers have also pointed out that just releasing open data can play a role in further entrenching power asymmetries related to access to technology and data literacy. This logic model is built around the premise informed by the case studies that high-impact open data projects are the result of matching supply and demand so that open data can be effectively used to inform specific activities and outputs aimed at improving development.

These outputs and activities can, in turn, serve a broader and more diverse group of users and objectives. We found that there is wide variability documented evidence. Much of the literature remains focused on the potential of open data to bring about positive benefits — absent real evidence and data.

Little distinction is made between intent, implication, and impact, blurring our understanding of what the true value may be of open data. To address the variability in evidence, and start focusing on testable premises of how, and under what conditions, open data works best in developing economies, we subsequently identified 27 enabling or disabling factors within the following five :. Periodic Table of Open Data Elements. View interactive periodic table here.

black madam Nadia

How can open data be leveraged as a new asset for development? Despite the variability in evidence, we identified several key take-aways enabling us to make the following specific recommendations for open data practitioners and decision makers, including donors like USAID, on how to better leverage open data as a new asset for development.

It is only with this type of structured analysis that we can gain a systematic and comparative evidence base of if and how open data is having meaningful impact on conditions on the ground in developing economies. In this table, we list the case studies developed to inform this paper, identify the intended impact of each, and note which of the key take-aways described above are represented in the projects studied.

Editorial support for this paper was provided by Akash Kapur and David Dembo. The members of our Advisory Committee see Appendix C were a great resource to the project for which we are grateful. Finally, special thanks to the stakeholders we interviewed to gain on-the-ground and expert perspectives on the use of open data in developing economies, as well as the peer reviewers who provided input on a pre-published draft see Appendix C. Inthe United States launched the data.

Since then there has been a rapid increase in the systematic opening of government data around the world. The Open Data Barometer, 1 published annually by the World Wide Web Foundation, found that 79 of the countries surveyed had official open data initiatives, and many others indicated imminent plans to establish such initiatives. Similarly, as part of the Open Government Partnership OGPa multilateral network established insome 70 countries have now issued National Action Plans, the majority of which contain strong open data commitments deed to foster greater transparency, generate economic growth, empower citizens, fight corruption, and more generally enhance governance.

Approximately half of these countries are from the developing world, 2 suggesting the uptake of open data is happening not only within economically advanced countries, but also in those less developed. All of this is part of a general move toward more transparent and innovative governance mechanisms, as emblematized by rising interest in notions of open government and open development.

This paper neither serves as a booster nor as a skeptic regarding the potential of open data in developing countries. Rather, it aims to sift through the evidence, draw out cross-cutting als and insights from practice across developing economies when present, and start identifying the conditions under which open data appears able to work best, as well as those conditions that impede its potential.

To formulate answers to the above questions and devise a theory of change, the authors undertook an extensive research effort that comprised a desk review of existing literature and identification of dozens of active open data projects around the developing world. From among these projects, the research team selected 12 case studies based on geographic and sector relevance. Each case study included further document review and consultations and interviews with project stakeholders over the course of three months. The outputs of these efforts and this final paper were reviewed and informed by an advisory group of open data for development experts and a group of open data peer reviewers.

Throughout the paper, examples from these case studies summarized in Appendix A are employed to illuminate the real-world impacts of open data, when they exist, as well as the enabling and disabling conditions that Large offer for an open minded bbw at 9 very simple a role in determining whether such impact is positive, negative — or negligible. In developing a change theory and identifying meaningful answers to the above organizing research questions on the impact of open data, this paper builds upon existing studies and analyses about the relationship between open data and development.

The primary objective of this research was to capture the universe of current narratives and evidence of open data for developing economies. We found that the literature remains largely focused on the potential of open data to bring about positive impacts. In many instances, the benefits of open data are celebrated despite little concrete evidence to prove that opening data has in fact created positive on-the-ground impacts at a meaningful scale. In addition, when evidence is being presented, little distinction is made between intent, implications, and impact. As such, this paper does reflect the positive narrative provided by the literature on open data for developing economies, but does so to help identify a meaningful al in the noise, and provide an analytical framework to enable others to build on our work and further crystallize the true impacts and drivers of successful open data initiatives in developing economies.

Our aim is to enable the field to move from ideology to evidence; we see this paper as an initial step toward that end. Our analysis focuses particularly on low- and medium-income countries, spread primarily across Africa, Latin America, and Asia. We do believe that some of the examples and evidence presented could be helpful in informing discussions and efforts underway in other contexts and countries. But questions of replication and scalability are complex — particularly when considering technological interventions — and we make no claims that the lessons offered here are universal, or even universally applicable across the diversity of countries that could be classified as low or medium income.

Toward that end the paper begins, in Part I, by providing a brief assessment on the theories and narratives of open data in development. In Part II, we present a change theory and a logic model to capture and develop evidence on open data in developing economies; these focus on enabling and disabling conditions, seeking to understand what makes open data projects work — or fail — to guide developing and funding open data initiatives in developing economies. The paper concludes with a set of key take-aways and recommendations for aid organizations, governments, private sector entities, and others that are considering replicating or using open data as an asset for development.

Open data is publicly available data that can be universally and readily accessed, used and redistributed free of charge. It is structured for usability and computability. Not all forms of data shared actually possess all the attributes included in this definition, nor do they necessarily conform to all the principles found in the Open Data Charter. Open data exists in a wide variety of fields and domains.

Three sectors in particular are responsible for producing the bulk of open data: governments, scientists, and corporations. In this paper, we focus mainly on the release and use of government data. We acknowledge, however, the importance and often untapped potential of more open access to science data and corporate data. Those other data sources, as well as crowdsourced data collection are also often mashed up with open government data, supplementing official public datasets to create new insights, opportunities, and impacts as a result.

In what follows, we deconstruct the main reasons why open government data matters to developing economies. The literature on open data reflects considerable enthusiasm about the potential for open government data in development. On the other hand, we also find grounds for caution; the impacts of many of the projects we examined remain largely aspirational or speculative, and some cases even led to harms or potential harms. We live in an era of big data. Every day, an Large offer for an open minded bbw at 9 very simple amount of information is being generated by an ever-increasing diversity of devices and appliances.

Today, a growing consensus exists that this data, if applied correctly, and with attention to the attendant risks, can help spur positive social change. Based on our examination of the narratives and evidence provided in the existing literature, six distinguishing features seem to be credited to open data. Although these characteristics are unique to open data, in many cases, they would not be possible without a broader data, technology, and innovation ecosystem.

With the understanding in mind that open data must exist in a strong ecosystem, the six distinguishing features that are most quoted with regard to open data in a development context include:. Scrutiny Because open data is subject to greater scrutiny and exposure than inaccessible institutional data, there is potential for enhanced review and improvement of government data quality e.

hot lady Emerald

This can result in more useful data — again, a benefit that is relevant in less developed countries and societies, where data is scarce, and of limited quality and usefulness. Equality Open data can lead to an inherently more equitable and democratic distribution of information and knowledge.

This is a key intended benefit in all countries, but particularly salient in many developing economies that struggle with large socio-economic and digital divides. Flexibility Open data is open with regard not only to the information it contains, but also to its format. This means that, when released in a usable manner, open data can be easier to repurpose and combine with other pieces of information than data institutions fail to make accessible, which in turn means that it is more flexible, with secondary uses that are likely to yield innovative insights.

Creating such technical capacity can, however, lead to opportunity costs and require ificant upfront resource allocation on the supply side, potentially slowing progress at the outset.

sexy escorts Annika

Participation By facilitating citizen participation and mobilization, open data can allow a wider range of expertise and knowledge to address and potentially solve complex problems. It can offer a more participatory way of solving complex public dilemmas, with pathways toward more easily tapping into ly inaccessible knowledge e.

Trust Because it increases transparency and avenues for citizen oversight, unlocking data can lead to higher levels of ability and trust throughout societies and countries. Value Amplifier Finally, it is now widely recognized that data is a new kind of asset or knowledge is a form of wealth.

sexual girlfriend Ari

The opening of government datasets in a flexible and equitable manner can amplify the value of data thanks to data filling important data gaps felt in society. Though this attribute is important across the world, it may have a particularly important role to play in developing economies. These narratives surrounding the open data movement reflect those associated with the cross-sector paradigm shift from closed processes to open ones, and how it applies to governance and development.

Software, for example, is increasingly developed in an open source manner. With the rise of the collaborative coding platform GitHub, a notable driver, 16 the open source movement, similar to open data, is seen to be providing for more equal and flexible ways to create and access code — resulting in distributed coders, not just tech company employees, creating and improving exciting new products. Similarly, businesses and governments alike are embracing open innovation techniques, posing opportunities to the crowd to provide input on important challenges and absorbing the best ideas — providing for enhanced participation and scrutiny, other features of open data.

Definitions of open governance or open government vary not only across sectors but within them. Definitions focus to varying degrees on the key elements of transparency, citizen participation, and collaboration, among others, depending on the context. In the wake of open government taking hold as an organizing concept for improving and innovating governance, open development has evolved as a more networked and innovative pathway to improving international aid and development efforts.

Large offer for an open minded bbw at 9 very simple

email: [email protected] - phone:(191) 401-5105 x 2604

Top 10 Best BBW Dating Sites for Plus-size Women and Curvy Singles